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About Graves' Disease



Graves’ disease often does not get the attention needed from medical professionals, perhaps because it is rarely fatal. However, Graves' must be treated to avoid complications such as bone/muscle wasting, heart problems, and thyroid storm – a very serious, life-threatening event.  The condition is serious for the millions of individuals who at times, are having problems with their thyroid and experience extreme highs and lows physically and emotionally. The impact on their personalities as they struggle with Graves’ can severely strain their relationship with family and friends.

Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease

Diseases of the immune system have a genetic predisposition. In a normal body, the immune system defends itself against germs and viruses. Other examples of autoimmune disease include Type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosis, psoriasis, and celiac disease.  Autoimmune diseases can affect different parts of the body. 

Graves' disease and hyperthyroidism

Graves’ disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism - a disorder that occurs when the thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormone than the body needs.

The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck below the larynx, or voice box. The thyroid gland makes two thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid hormones affect metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart and nervous system functions, body temperature, muscle strength, skin dryness, menstrual cycles, weight, cholesterol levels, and emotional & cognitive functions.

Thyroid hormone production is regulated by another hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is made by the pituitary gland located in the brain.

In Graves’ disease, the immune system makes antibodies called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) that attach to thyroid cells. TSI mimics the action of TSH and stimulates the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone. Sometimes the antibodies can instead block thyroid hormone production, leading to a confusing clinical picture.

Eye and Skin Involvement

Patients with Graves’ disease may experience some level of eye involvement, requiring consultation with an experienced ophthalmologist.  Symptoms can include dry eyes, swelling, redness, eyelid retraction, and a “gritty” sensation.  Less common complications include bulging (proptosis), double vision, and compression of the optic nerve.  Symptoms typically progress and then stabilize over a period of 2-3 years.  For more serious complications, surgical options are available to restore eye function and appearance.

Very occasionally, Graves’ patients develop a lumpy reddish thickening of the skin in front of the shins known as pretibial myxedema.  This condition is usually diagnosed and treated by a dermatologist.

Graves' disease - Fast Facts

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides the following statistics:

  • Graves’ Disease affects approximately 2 to 3% of the population or almost 10 million people. The figure may be higher because some may have eye involvement but not diagnosed with thyroid problems.
  • Graves' is five to 10 times more common in women than men.
  • Graves' usually occurs in middle age, but also occurs in children, adolescents and the elderly.

Recent News

Recent Forum Posts

  • Managing stress and diet

    March 30, 2015, 10:45 a.m.

    I deleted a new post on this thread, because I couldn't identify the source of the information posted. Please...

  • Understanding Graves Disease Results

    March 30, 2015, 10:37 a.m.

    No worries, Sue, I figured that's what had happened. You always have something useful to offer!

  • Understanding Graves Disease Results

    March 27, 2015, 5:02 p.m.

    Oh my word…… can we chalk that up to Graves brain? This poor woman comes on here asking to have...

  • Understanding Graves Disease Results

    March 27, 2015, 4:18 p.m.

    Hi Sue - This was a diagnosis of Graves' disease. Always nice to “see” you, though!

  • Understanding Graves Disease Results

    March 27, 2015, 12:31 p.m.

    Hello, sorry about the diagnosis but glad you found us. I'm curious….. how did you get a diagnosis of...

  • Understanding Graves Disease Results

    March 27, 2015, 10:17 a.m.

    Hello and welcome! All lab results are formatted a little differently, but yes, the “value”...

  • Understanding Graves Disease Results

    March 26, 2015, 3:18 p.m.

    I received a potential Graves Disease diagnosis last week. Tonight, I received the confirmation from the Dr's...

  • hypo husband?

    March 26, 2015, 9:13 a.m.

    Hello - Obviously we're not docs here, but if a patient is symptomatic *and* out of range, it seems like the...

  • How long for muscles to heal and rebuild?

    March 26, 2015, 9:08 a.m.

    Hello - When it comes to lab work, *you* are the customer! The lab should run whatever your doctor requests....

  • hypo husband?

    March 26, 2015, 7:59 a.m.

    i have a question,my husband has been taking levo for about 10 years,he has underactive thyroid.4 month ago...

  • Managing stress and diet

    March 26, 2015, 7:38 a.m.

    hi,, that sounds so like me 20 years ago.stomach issues,always tired ect ect.this is what helped...

  • How long for muscles to heal and rebuild?

    March 26, 2015, 7:30 a.m.

    Thanks, Kimberly - like you, I hope others with shifting levels, whether due to dose changes in their ATDs or...

  • Just needed to vent

    March 25, 2015, 6:24 a.m.

    Hi Kimberly, I am finally regaining weight. I was considering scheduling a appointment with my endo, but this...

  • feeling miserable--hypo after RAI

    March 24, 2015, 3:13 p.m.

    Hello! I just saw your post and sure hope you come back. Your story was EERILY similar to mine….the...

  • feeling miserable--hypo after RAI

    March 24, 2015, 1:27 p.m.

    Hello - Thyroid eye disease is a separate issue that tends to run its own course. Hopefully, you are seeing...

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